The systematic study of cryptography and cryptanalysis is often referred to as ‘Cryptology’. Cryptography makes data transmission as well as data storage secure and safe. This ensures that unauthorized persons cannot breach the network to see confidential data.

Cryptology dates back to a time when written messages were only required to be safeguarded. The source information comprises 1s and 0s and is referred to as plaintext. Only users with a cipher can find meaning behind those messages. Two operations can be performed over a plaintext. The transformation of plaintext into a cipher or ciphertext is known as ‘encryption’. While revealing the hidden information from a cipher is known as ‘decryption’.